Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov

Known as Tsar Nicholas II. The last Emperor of Russia, ruling from November 1 1894, until his forced abdication on March 15 1917. Imprisoned and executed during the Russian Revolution in 1918.

Son of Emperor Alexander III of Russia and Maria Feodorovna of Denmark. Father of Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia and Alexei.

His mtDNA HVR1 and HVR2 profile was derived from DNA testing of his remains and from his blood on a preserved shirt. This profile was compared to the profile obtained from the remains of his brother Georgij Romanov, and two living maternal line descendants. The Tsar carries a rare mutation at position 16169 of the HVR1 region of the mtDNA called a “heteroplasmy” which he shares with his brother Georgij Romanov and is a marker for proving relation to the Tsar.

His Y-DNA profile was also derived from DNA testing of his remains and the remains of his son, Alexei.