Duke of Normandy from 1785 to 1789, Dauphin of France from 1789 to 1791, Prince Royal of France from 1791 to 1792. Known as Louis-Charles.
Son of King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette. Grandson of Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress.
Died of tuberculosis in the Temple of Paris at age 10 during the French Revolution.
His mtDNA HVR1 and HVR2 profile was derived from DNA testing of a piece of his own heart tissue, ancient hair samples from his mother (Marie Antoinette) and two of his maternal aunts, and from samples collected from two living maternal line descendants of Maria Theresa – Queen Anne of Romania and André de Bourbon Parme.