Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790. Ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790
Eldest son of Francis I (Holy Roman Emperor) and Maria Theresa (Holy Roman Empress). 15 siblings including Leopold II (Holy Roman Emperor), Maria Carolina (Queen of Naples and Sicily) and Marie Antoinette (Queen of France and Navarre).
His mtDNA HVR1 and HVR2 profile was derived from DNA testing of ancient hair samples from three of his sisters, and from samples collected from two living maternal line descendants of Maria Theresa – Queen Anne of Romania and André de Bourbon Parmis.