Anna Anderson first appeared around 1920 and claimed to be the Grand Duchess Anastasia Romanov. She claimed that she had escaped the execution of her family and fled from Russia. DNA analyses confirmed that she was not Anastasia and is more likely to be Franzisca Schanzkowska.
Franzisca Schanzkowska was a Polish peasant born in 1896 and had a history of mental illness. She disappeared in 1920 from a mental institute.
Anna Anderson’s mtDNA HVR1 profile was determined by DNA testing of a tissue sample collected during surgery in 1979. This profile matched that of Franzisca Schanzkowska’s, determined by DNA testing of her maternal grand nephew, Carl Maucher.