Napoléon Bonaparte

Emperor of the French from 18th May 1804 – 11th April 1814 before he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome. Escaped Elba in Feb 1815 and briefly regained control of France (20th March 1815 – 22nd June 1815). King of Italy 17th March 1805 – 11th April 1814.

One of the greatest commanders in history and dominated European & global affairs as leader of France in the Napoleonic Wars, establishing a large empire across Europe until eventual defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. Died during British captivity on the island of Saint Helena.

Second son of Carlo Buonaparte (a Corsican lawyer and politician from minor Italian nobility) and Maria Letizia Ramolino.

First marriage to Joséphine de Beauharnais produced no children, so he divorced Joséphine and married Marie-Louise (Archduchess of Austria) with whom he had one son – Napoleon II. Napoleon II died at age 21, with no children. Napoléon I also had many illegitimate children, including Charles Léon and Alexandre Colonna-Walewski.

Y-haplogroup and Y-DNA STR profile determined from DNA analysis of Napoléon I’s hair samples and confirmed from DNA analysis of Charles Napoléon (a paternal descendant of Napoléon I’s younger brother, Jérôme, King of Westphalia). mtDNA HVR1 haplotype determined from DNA analysis of hair samples from Napoléon I, his sister (Caroline) and his mother.